HIV/AIDS and Tuberculosis: two closely related diseases

People living with HIV are around 20% more likely to develop Tuberculosis than people without this disease. Tuberculosis is the most common illness among people living with HIV, including those who are receiving antiretroviral treatment. Also it is the main cause of HIV-related deaths. Sub-Saharan Africa has been bearing the brunt of the dual epidemic, accounting for approximately 86% of all deaths from HIV-associated TB in 2016. These numbers drove WHO (World Health Organization) to create a collaboration between tuberculosis and HIV programmes, trying to reduce the burden of patients among people living with both diseases.

Global trends

Global trends for HIV and Tuberculosis over time

According to the data, these two lines can be described as follows: The first graph (blue path) shows an increase in the percentage of patients who know they have the disease (positive slope). The decrease in its width indicates that the number of HIV positive results is reduced from the tests performed. Finally, the darker shade shows an increase in patients receiving antiretroviral treatment.

The second line shows a slight reduction in the number of patients with tuberculosis (negative slope), and also a slight increase (width) in the % coverage of treatment, and a decrease in deaths from tuberculosis (lighter color) from 2006.

Trends by Geographical Area

Variation in trends for different geographical areas

In all regions, we can see an upward trend in the number of patients who know their disease, and the number of HIV positive patients in the tests is reduced (except in Europe, where a slight increase is detected as of 2016). Africa stands out due to its greater number of HIV positive cases, but also for an increase in access to treatment.

The contrast between areas (such as Africa, the Mediterranean and South East Asia compared to Europe, the Americas and West Pacific) stands out. For the last three, there is a stable trend in the number of patients and treatment coverage. On the other hand they have a low number of deaths due to the disease. In Africa and South East Asia, on the other hand, a decrease in the number of TB cases can clearly be seen, and also a decrease in the number of deaths over time.

Trends: Groups by income

Differences in the trends for different groups based on income

According to the income of the groups (low, low-mid, up-mid, and high income), we can draw the following conclusions: An increase for all groups of the knowledge of the disease. A decrease in the number of HIV positive cases in tests, and more access to treatment (with the exception of the upper class, in which has fallen since 2016).

Similarly, the incidence of tuberculosis decreases for classes with less purchasing power (although with much less coverage), while the upper classes remain stable. As for the number of deaths, it decreases slightly for the groups of low and low-mid classes and is minimal for the upper class.

Insights 2017
  • Estimated: 10.0 million (range: 9.0-11.1 million) new TB cases.
  • Estimated: 1.3 million (range: 1.2 - 1.4 million) HIV-negative people died from TB and 0.30 million (range: 0.27-0.34 million) HIV-positive people died from TB.
  • Notified: 6.4 million new TB cases were officially notified to national authorities and then reported to WHO.